Among the businessmen, millworkers, adventurers and families traveling to Central Oregon in the early 1900’s, was Father Luke Sheehan.Originally from County Cork, Ireland, Father Sheehan came to Bend in 1910 as part of a mission to Oregon made by the Irish Capuchin order of Catholic priests.
Father Luke Sheehan
Father Luke established the St. Francis parish by traveling hundreds of miles via horseback and foot, recruiting widely dispersed parishioners throughout Central Oregon. Included in this group were Irish immigrants who had come to the high desert to work as sheep herders. Father Luke’s nephew, Dominic O’Connor, was also a Capuchin priest and followed his uncle to Bend in 1922, after helping establish the Irish Republic.
Both men worked to create a solid foundation for the school, which was constructed during the Great Depression. The school officially opened in 1936 with 145, 1st – 8th graders in attendance. The original building was brick and contained four classrooms with two grades assigned to each room. Classroom additions were made in the 1950’s and 60’s to accommodate enrollment growth, as well as a new parish center that housed a gym, stage, meeting rooms and cafeteria.
St. Francis School
Students in front of St. Francis
In 2000, the school relocated to a new campus on Bend’s northeast side, and the old property in downtown Bend, including four bungalow houses, was passed to the McMenamins brothers.BBT helped McMenamins renovate the entire property into a hotel, restaurant, pub, theater, soaking bath, pub, rental cottages and more. The renovation utilizes all seven existing buildings on the site, and special attention was given to the historical aspects and details of each. Landscaped exteriors in gathering and dining areas, as well as the interior design and attention to detail resulted in the kind of magical place that McMenamins are known for throughout the Northwest. The facility opened in November 2004.
St. Francis School - under construction
St. Francis School - location of what is now O'Kanes Pub
BBT Architects recently wrapped up another “Architecture Foundation of Oregon: Architects in Schools” series with local elementary schools. Architects Liz Hedrick and Nathanael Werner, Project Manager Kevin Shaver and Architectural Intern Tammy Hite, all contributed their time and knowledge to Buckingham, Amity Creek and Ponderosa Elementary Schools.
Students practice drawing at Buckingham Elementary
Liz Hedrick helps a student with her bridge
Liz, Nathanael, Kevin and Tammy each took students through a series of different assignments, all leading up to a final project. One of the first assignments was to learn how to draw. The students first practiced drawing a human face using a grid system, and then used the grid system to draw a log building. The final lesson included exercises on how it might physically feel to be different types of structures. For example, students imitate tension by locking fingers and pulling against one another to create a “post,” with arms acting like beams.Other exercises imitated arches, domes and trusses.
Architect Liz Hedrick talks to the students about drawing.
Buckingham Elementary students' work on display at the Old Mill District.
For Tammy’s final project, her students teamed up to design a structure for the new Miller’s Landing Park in Bend.They were to determine if the structure was just a piece of art, or if it was also interactive.The project allowed the students to explore the concept of designing in a defined space, color and material selection, geometric shapes, model making and teamwork. The final presentation included models, drawings and a short written program.
Amity Creek's students play structures on display at the Old Mill.
Tammy Hite's students work on display at the Old Mill.
Liz and Kevin helped the students at Buckingham Elementary build 3-D truss bridges for their final projects, using craft sticks and displaying them spanning across a river.The hands-on activity of building the bridges helped the students understand their math unit on bridges, while the activities leading up to the bridge construction increased their awareness of the built environment. The best outcome of the assignment, though, is the students’ understanding of how fun and productive it can be to build structures by hand.
Buckingham Elementary completed projects on display.
Nathanael worked with a Ponderosa Elementary teacher to parallel the AiS assignment with her 5th grade curriculum, which happened to be U.S. history. The first lesson introduced the concept of architectural styles by studying the different colonial styles that arose in the 1700’s, and how many originated from Europe. Other lessons discussed room layouts, functionality, and the limitations of materials and skilled labor during that time, and how it affected the look and feel of the communities.The students eventually applied what they learned by designing and sketching a colonial home. Their final project included building a colonial town with homes, taverns and a church. Each student was designated as a carpenter, mason or painter to complete each piece of either a home, tavern or church.
Architect Nathanael Werner talks with a student at the AiS display at the Old Mill.
A student looks at the display created by Ponderosa Elementary students.
All the students’ final projects were displayed at the Old Mill District, and the exhibit was launched during Bend’s First Friday Art Walk in May.
Close up photo of Ponderosa Elementary's project.
Ponderosa Elementary's display at the Old Mill.
People review the AiS display at the Old Mill District on First Friday in May.
Located on the corner of Wall and Idaho Streets, just north of the Old Bend High School, the Bend Amateur Athletic Club was constructed during World War I - a time when the small community was focused on war-related efforts. But the Athletic Club was still built - a cost of $50,000 - most of which was from contributions and donations from private citizens.
The building’s foundation is concrete and lava rock, supporting a brick masonry bearing wall two bricks thick, with a trussed roof. 300,000 bricks were purchased from a local brick yard for the project at 1,000 bricks/$10. Interior spaces at the time included an auditorium/gymnasium with a fully-equipped stage, hardwood floor, 700 seats split between two balconies along with room for 500 more seats on the main floor. The main entrance also included offices, ticket booths and a ladies restroom. The second floor consisted of a lounge and library with a lava rock fireplace at each end. The east end opened toward the Jacobean-style main gym, with a balcony for movie projection and theatrical lighting. Each side of the stage included reading rooms for mill employees, and on the third floor, accessible by a small spiral staircase, was a padded wrestling room. A basement housed accommodations for a caretaker, a bowling alley, billiard room, towel room, showers, 600 lockers, a 20’ x 60’ swimming pool and seats for 100 spectators. Prior to opening to the public, the BAAC served as an auxiliary hospital during the influenza epidemic of 1918, with cots set up on the main floor for patients. Events such as public dances, speeches, basketball games and practices, physical education classes and indoor athletic events were held at the Club, which also served as a local community recreation/cultural center.
In November 1919, the Club was turned over to the YMCA and used by other clubs such as the American Legion, Boy Scouts, Library Association and Bend Women’s Civic Club. In June of 1921, the building title went to the American Legion, and then to the Bend School District in 1923, where it remains today.
Architect Lee A. Thomas, AIA, designed the 20,100 square foot building as a three-story rectangular brick box, adding some neo-classicism elements, as well as classical features including paired decorative concrete plaques at all corners of the building representing Native American athletes – rare examples of Arts and Crafts architecture influenced by the European New Art movement –gothic molding, and decorative Indian head plaques on the proscenium arch. Clerestory windows on the south wall allowed for naturally lit spaces, as did windows on the north side at the pool level.
BBT completed a $2.1M restoration in 1999, including rehabilitation of the entire interior and partial exterior, which was completed in a manner that preserved the building’s historical integrity, and met the program needs of the Boys and Girls Club, which currently occupies the space.The restoration included significant structural seismic upgrades, handicap accessibility improvements, activity areas, classrooms, gymnasium, meeting rooms and administrative offices.The stabilization and attention to historical detail was also a significant part of the design process. The indoor swimming pool is now filled in, and the basement bowling alley and caretaker’s quarters have been eliminated.
After completion the building - which is on the National Register of Historic Buildings - received the Governor’s Liability Award, a State Historic Preservation Award and a Building a Better Central Oregon Award.
After Bend was incorporated as a city in 1904, two commercial sawmills began operating along the Deschutes River and the Oregon Trunk Railroad arrived in 1911, the city’s population continued to grow at a steady pace. Bend’s first school, a three-story building finished in 1914, accommodated 241, first through 12th grade students. Three years later, a high school with eight rooms was built to meet the demand of Bend’s expanding families.
Another three years after Bend’s first high school opened, classrooms were already overflowing into 16 temporary spaces in nearby buildings. This prompted the Bend School Board to establish a unified school district, which then moved forward with approval of the first bond issue for construction of a new, more spacious high school.
Bend High School opened September 7, 1925 on a 3.17 acre site on the south edge of downtown Bend. Hugh A. Thompson, Bend’s first resident architect, designed both Bend High School and Saint Francis School, which also began construction in 1925. The design of the U-shaped, two-story high school is neoclassical – a movement that began in the mid-18th century, derived from architecture of Classical Greece and Rome, that emphasizes planar features. The structure has also been classified as late Beaux Arts – a style that heavily influenced architecture in the U.S. from 1880 – 1920, with characteristics including a flat roof, arched doors, sculptural decoration and other themed artwork.
Approximately 25 years later, enrollment at Bend High was nearing 1,000 and the district recognized a need for yet another high school. A new Bend High School opened in September 1956 in a different location, and the Old Bend High School was used as a middle school until 1979. The building is currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and serves as administrative offices for the Bend La Pine School District.
BBT has completed many updates to the old high school, as well as assisted with preparation of the building’s National Register Nomination for successful placement on the National Register of Historic Places. The first of BBT’s projects consisted of a facilities condition study, which included investigation into:
Energy savings systems
HVAC and electrical systems
Fire suppression and fire alarm systems
The study also provided historic character direction for future remodeling. Following the study, BBT designed an interior renovation to the IT Department located in the basement of the building. In 2010, BBT completed replacement of all windows and exterior doors and hardware, as well as re-point of the exterior masonry. The project required close coordination with the Deschutes County Historical Landmarks Commission to maintain the building’s National Register listing.
In 2012, BBT completed an interior renovation of the Board Room, Conference Room and Staff Lounge/Work Room on the third floor of the building.The project included technology upgrades, as well as new finishes throughout, making sure interior fixtures were historically accurate.
Last month, one of BBT’s principals was fortunate enough to participate in Challenge Day - a day where youth, teachers, coaches and community leaders participate in a 6.5 hour-long program that demonstrates how the possibility of love and connection can be realized through the understanding and celebration of diversity, truth and expression. Through Serendipity West, a Central Oregon non-profit, students in Jefferson County were able to spend a day participating in exercises, presentations and small group discussions with the goal of experiencing the feeling that they are safe, loved and celebrated. BBT’s principal is quoted as saying it was one of the most memorable days of her life.
Founded in 1987, Challenge Day has received support worldwide. The program was created to build connection and empathy with students who experience separation, isolation and loneliness.Seen as the cause of teasing, bullying, stereotyping, racism, violence, suicide and drug and alcohol abuse, the program goes beyond traditional anti-bullying efforts by building empathy and igniting a movement of compassion and positive change to combat negative thoughts and emotions. By relying on the connection between students, teachers, parents, administrators, counselors and community members, those who come together for Challenge Day can experience that love and compassion are truly possible in our schools.
The cost to host a Challenge Day is $3,200, plus additional travel expenses. For a 3-day Challenge Day program in a local community, the cost is roughly $12,000 – without any expense to the students. Through Serendipity West’s fundraising efforts, they have directly impacted over 2,800 teens and 950 adult volunteers at 30 Challenge Days in 13 middle and high schools in Central Oregon.
Madras High School
BBT Architectss has designed and improved over 30 schools in Central Oregon. As we continue to design educational facilities, our commitment to students in Central Oregon remains strong and continues to grow every day as we learn about the growing needs of children, not only in building design, but their emotional and cultural needs as well.We are committed to creating schools that excite students, teachers and administrators by listening to their thoughts, experiencing what they experience every day, and understanding how we can help them achieve their highest learning and teaching potentials.
Bend, Oregon has grown by 25,000 people in the last 10 years. Once a thriving mill town, Bend has transitioned to a recreational mecca for visitors and residents alike. Nearby Mt. Bachelor Ski Resort, miles of mountain biking trails, floater-friendly Deschutes River and legendary Smith Rock, have all turned Bend from a burst building bubble into a year-round recreational, beer-thirsty and music-drenched community in survivalist mode. Home to many creative entrepreneurs, Bend has an energetic community of diverse, driven people who are creating their own jobs in hopes of sustaining a Central Oregon lifestyle.
Bend is home to Central Oregon Community College – located on a wooded campus on the southwest slope of Awbrey Butte on Bend’s west side. Established in the mid-1960’s, COCC has grown their campus to include locations in Redmond, Madras and Prineville. But the Bend campus is still bursting at the seams after expansion to nearby communities. They have also welcomed Oregon State University’s (OSU) Cascades campus as a sister school, located within their Bend campus. OSU’s Cascades campus serves as a capstone, offering upper division and graduate course work toward bachelor’s and master’s degrees. When it opened in 2001, OSU-Cascades was targeted as a place where COCC students could finish their coursework and receive a degree from a four-year university.Currently, OSU-Cascades is not a traditional, four-year university.
Mazama Hall -COCC, Bend Campus
Research of similar towns with four-year universities shows that bicycle traffic, affordable (and diverse) dining options, well-supported bar scenes, performing arts and music venues, limitless outdoor opportunities and coffee shops are important to college students. Blake Gumprecht writes in his book, The American College Town, that the qualities more specified to Regional State Universities include student-oriented bars, neighborhoods with student rentals, and a less conspicuous impact of collegiate culture. And regional universities are more representative of their location than other types of college towns. OSU’s main campus resides in the Willamette Valley therefore, OSU-Cascades is considered a Regional Campus.
OSU-Cascades Facility Near the Old Mill District
The Huffington Post reported on a few excellent college towns with benefits such as “the city is your playground (Boston),” and “no shortage of outdoor activities in all seasons (Boulder).” Other characteristics like campus beauty, a laid back atmosphere offering students more than just drinking, and welcoming local residents, are what make or break a college town.
Deschutes River Waterfront
Even retirees are drawn to active lifestyles, seeking a little intellectual stimulation along the way.According to the National Association of Realtors, Baby Boomers are increasingly citing a preference for college and university communities. In 2000, Bend, Oregon was voted one of the Best Places to Retire by Money magazine.Affordable living, a small population and active lifestyles put Bend on the map - a large leap from Portland and limited academic facilities were listed as drawbacks.Fast forward to 2012 and the population has increased by half, but homes are finally affordable again, and entertainment, recreation, dining and drinking options are limitless.Many might say that Bend has barely survived the burst of the real estate bubble.
Bend Brewfest Banners in the Old Mill District
Back in 2008, Zillow.com reported that college towns happen to be one of the safest places to buy a new home - steady employment, constant housing and saturated rental markets are just a few of the reasons,with small cities benefitting the most. A lack of on-campus housing also stands as an opportunity for investment.Parents of students have the option of purchasing a home for their sons and daughters, with the likely possibility that their investment will appreciate and/or become a future retirement home.
Les Schwab Ampitheater in the Old Mill
Les Schwab Amphitheater stage in the Old Mill District
Creating a desirable environment where students want to live seems to be the bottom line. There are many students attending the University of Texas in Austin so they can graduate, get a job and raise a family there. As Gumprecht writes, “a college town is … any city where a college or university and the culture it creates, exerts a dominant influence over the character of the community.” Bozeman, Montana and Boise, Idaho are western cities both home to major universities, and compare in size and lifestyle to Bend. But the location and surrounding areas of campus seem to be the deciding factor when future students and faculty make their choices. If a four-year university in Bend is in fact funded, the campus will likely be positioned mere yards from the Deschutes River, less than a mile from the Old Mill District, and less than two miles from downtown. Prime placement, or so it seems, for a town that’s currently struggling to identify what its next burst-resistant bubble might be.
BBT Architects recently wrapped up an “Architecture Foundation of Oregon Architects in Schools” series with local Bend elementary schools.Architect Liz Hedrick, and Architectural Interns Tammy Hite and Nathanael Werner all lent their time and knowledge to Buckingham, Amity Creek and Ponderosa Elementary Schools.
Liz, Tammy and Nathanael each took students through a series of different assignments, all leading up to a final project. For their final lessons, students were taught how architectural design impacts a community, and asked to create communities for animal habitats; while other students were taught about different styles of bridges, and challenged to create 3-D models using popsicle sticks.The Amity Creek group identified unique forms found in play structures, and were asked to create miniature 3-D versions of their own using construction paper.
The students’ final projects were displayed at the Old Mill District, and the exhibit was launched during Bend’s First Friday Art Walk in May.
Building play structures
Students building bridges using popsicle sticks
Forming a "bridge"
Students build their own bridges
Liz shows the kids how human bridges work
Drawing Human Forms
Practicing Human Bridges
Ponderosa Elementary students visit the BBT Offices
Simply put, a Net Zero Energy building must have a significantly reduced need for energy, and have the capacity to make up for the balance of it by using renewable technology, such as PV (solar) panels, wind, hydroelectricity or bio fuels. Yet, when defining a building that requires zero energy – or “net zero” the Department of Energy explains a “net zero energy” building is determined by the project’s goals, and can fall into any or all of the four categories below:
Net Zero Site Energy – The building produces as much energy on site as it uses within a year.
Net Zero Source Energy – The building produces as much energy from a source as it uses within a year. A source refers to primary energy used to generate and deliver energy to the site.
Net Zero Energy Costs – The utility company pays the building owner for the energy the building exports to the grid, which is equal to the amount the owner pays the utility company for the energy services during the year.
Net Zero Emissions – The building produces as much emissions-free renewable energy as it uses from an emissions-producing energy source.
The design process is usually where reduction of the building’s energy consumption begins.Designers take advantage of sunlight, solar heat and the cool temperatures of the earth, and combine them to calculate a method of indoor lighting and stabilizing indoor temperatures. Computer software can help determine how a building will perform using those natural energy resources in relation to the building’s orientation, window and door placement, local climate and more, which can help with cost benefit analysis, financial implications on the building and life cycle assessment.
Solar-powered ranger home at the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument - the first net-zero home in the National Park Service. (Photo courtesy of DJC Oregon)
Once the building has been designed, construction specifications include energy-saving features to enhance the building’s efficiency.Things like added insulation, high-efficiency windows, natural ventilation, skylights and/or solar tubes and solar water heating all depend on climate zones, but can be very effective at reducing a building’s energy intake.
After the building is complete, energy must be harvested. If a building is connected to the grid, extra energy produced by the building may be returned to the grid when it’s not needed, and drawn from the grid when there’s not enough being produced. The building’s primary function – whether it’s a home or business - also impacts how energy is used.
Electricity consumption in the commercial building sector is expected to increase 50% by 2025, and will continue to increase until buildings are designed to offset their energy demand. The U.S. Department of Energy recognizes this, and has established a goal to “create the technology and knowledge base for cost-effective zero-energy commercial buildings by 2025.”
228 years ago today, in 1784 on the 29th day of February, Leo von Klenze (Franz Karl Leopold von Klenze) was born. A German neoclassicist architect, he also studied public building finance, designed and arranged museum galleries of ancient art, and was an accomplished painter.His ability for sharp observation worked with his gift to improve upon nature – a talent that led him to design the streets, squares, and buildings which established Munich as the Bavarian capital.He also worked on preserving the Acropolis in Athens.In 1816, he began work as the court architect of Bavarian King Ludwig I, who influenced Leo with his passion for Hellenism - a neoclassical movement distinct from other Roman or Greco-Roman forms of neoclassicism that emerged after the European Renaissance. In 1838 he was commissioned by the Russian Emperor to design the New Hermitage, a public museum that housed the Romanov collection of paintings, books, coins and medals, prints and drawings in St. Petersburg, Russia.
(images of Leo vonKlenze and New Hermitage Museum ) courtesy of Wikipedia
Honorable Mention:While he’s not a Leap Year baby, Architect Frank Gehry was born the day before on February 28, in 1929.
(image of Guggenheim Museum in Spain, courtesy of Wikipedia)
The start of 2012 beckons us to look at ways we can continue to simplify and lessen our carbon footprint.While it’s no secret that Facebook recently completed a data center in Central Oregon, what most may not know is that the facility in Prineville consumes far less power than traditional computing facilities.
According to a Wired.com article, “Facebook leases data center space in North California and Virginia, and says the Prineville data center requires 38 percent less energy than these other facilities – while costing 24 percent less.”They have released the blue print of this data center to the general public as part of the Open Compute Project (opencompute.org):“By releasing Open Compute Project technologies as open hardware, our goal is to develop servers and data centers following the model traditionally associated with open source software projects.” “The ultimate goal of the Open Compute Project is to spark a collaborative dialogue. We’re already talking with our peers about how we can work together on Open Compute Project technology.”
Above: Facebook Data Center #1 - photo by Pete Erickson
With Facebook taking the initiative to release their energy-efficient data center model to the world, one can only hope that other visionaries might do the same.Buildings accounted for 38.9% of total U.S. energy consumption in 2005, and 72% of total U.S. electricity consumption in 2006 (U.S. Department of Engery and Annual Energy Review).Sustainability is becoming standard practice in the building and construction industry, and energy-saving models are now regarded as necessary – not optional.Not surprisingly, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is becoming a global trend.According to GreenBiz Group’s fourth annual report, there is 7.4% growth in international LEED projects, compared to just a growth of 1.5% in the United States.
Construction on Facebook’s second Prineville data center is in the works, and more data centers are on the horizon. Crews are learning new energy saving methods such as capturing rainwater for irrigation and flushing, installing evaporative cooling systems and extensive use of solar panels to save hundreds of thousands of kilowatt-hours per year.Needless to say, this is just the beginning of an architectural trend that has been in the making for quite some time and the leaders in technology are running with it, with the hope that the rest of the world will follow.